What was the industrial revolution

Industrial Revolution: It all started in England

The industrial revolution marks the transition from an agricultural to an industrial society in Europe. It began in England in the late 18th century and spread across most of Europe in the second half of the 19th century. Up to the present day the industrial revolution has the The living conditions of the people strongly influenced. This makes it one of the most important economic and social historical events in European history.

England led the way in the industrial revolution. From there industrialization spilled over to Germany and later also to France. After England, the industrial revolution in Germany was one of the most pronounced and has the German economy significantly influenced to this day. Because without them, Germany might still be an agricultural state today and would never have been able to exhaust its coal reserves so intentionally. The central role of England at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution is related to many different reasons - especially the ideal starting position of the English economy at the time of the emerging new inventions.

Reasons for the start of the industrial revolution in England

Towards the end of the 18th century, England was predestined for economic growth. Although it was involved in several wars at the time, none of them existed on English soil. As a result, neither politics nor society had to contend with the direct consequences of the war. In contrast to Germany, England ruled no compulsory guild. This means that craftsmen could practice their professions without belonging to a specific guild. In addition, entrepreneurship was promoted through extensive freedom of trade.

Besides, England was rich in raw materials such as coal, which could be mined in one's own country or imported from the numerous English colonies. In Europe, England had a central position as a sea power: not only the transport routes on the water, but also the canal system in the country itself, which was developed at an early stage, accommodated the economic upswing.

The great inventions

The main reason England played a pioneering role in the Industrial Revolution was because of the inventions made mainly by English scientists. That led to the new technologies could be used faster and cheaper in factories and companies. For example, the first usable steam engine was developed by the English inventor Thomas Newcomen in 1711. It was used to pump out the water in mines. The inventor of the first industrial spinning machine, James Hargreaves, was also an Englishman. The cotton weaver constructed the first machine for spinning wool into yarn in 1764. In 1785, the British scholar Edmond Cartwright developed the first mechanical loom.

These groundbreaking inventions of technical machines mark the beginning of the industrial revolution. Because many of these machines were made by the English, the country was rolled into one temporal and financial advantage: In contrast to France or Germany, Great Britain did not have to pay any patent fees and was able to use the new devices more quickly.

England as a forerunner of the industrial revolution

The main reasons for the Supremacy of England In the Industrial Revolution, therefore, were primarily its raw material deposits, the large number of colonies, the position of maritime power in Europe and numerous important inventions by English scientists.

However, industrialization in Europe was not only characterized by economic upturn, but also brought about social grievances with themselves such as child labor. In addition, England was hit hard by deflation around 1850. Nevertheless, to this day Great Britain is best known and famous for the great inventions of the Industrial Revolution.

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