Which are the thirty districts in Karnataka

Kodagu (also known by its previous name Coorg ) is an administrative district in the Karnataka state of India. Before 1956 it was an administratively separate Coorg state. [3] To at this point it was merged into an expanded Mysore state. It occupies an area of ​​4,102 square kilometers in the Western Ghats in southwest Karnataka. In 2001 the population was 548,561, of which 13.74% lived in the district's city center. This makes it the least populous of the 30 districts in Karnataka. The nearest train stations are Mysore Junction, approximately 95 km away, and Thalassery andKannur in Kerala, 79 km away. The nearest airports are Kannur International Airport in Kerala (59 km from Kodagu) and Mangalore International Airport (118 km from Kodagu).


Clockwise from the top:
Aerial view of highway near Kushalnagar, creek near Somwarpet, morning mists in Coorg, Omkareshwar temple in Madikeri, Mallalli Falls near Somwarpet.
Nicknames:
Scotland of India, the land of warriors, coffee cup of India
Coordinates: 12.4208 ° N 75.7397 ° O. 12 ° 25'15 "N 75 ° 44'23" E. /. / 12.4208; 75.7397Coordinates: 12 ° 25'15 "N 75 ° 44'23" E. /. 12.4208 ° N, 75.7397 ° E. / 12.4208; 75.7397
countryIndia
StatusKarnataka
regionMalnad
headquartersMadikeri
TalukasMadikeri, Somwarpet, Virajpet, Ponnampet, Kushalanagar
government
• Deputy CommissionerCharulatha Somal
• MPPratap Simha
• MLA
Area
• A total of4,102 km 2 (1,584 square miles)
elevation 900 m
population
• A total of554,519
• Density140 / km 2 (350 / sq mi)
Demonym (s)Kodava
languages
• OfficiallyKannada
• RegionalKannada, Malayalam, Kodava, Arebhashe [2]
Time zoneUTC + 5: 30 (IST)
PEN
Phone code
  • + 91 (0) 8272 (Madikeri)
  • +91 (0) 8274 (Virajpet)
  • + 91 (0) 8276 (Somwarpet)
Vehicle registrationKA-12
Literacy82,52%
Lok Sabha constituencyMysore Lok Sabha constituency
Constituency of the Legislative Assembly of KarnatakaMadikeri, Virajpet
climateTropical Wet (Köppen)
Precipitation2,725.5 millimeters
Average Summer temperature28.6 ° C (83.5 ° F)
Average Winter temperature14.2 ° C (57.6 ° F)
websitekodagu .nic .in

Geography

Kodagu is on the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats. It has a geographical area of ​​4,102 km 2 . [4] The district borders in the northwest on the district Dakshina Kannada, in the north on the district Hassan, in the east on the district Mysore, in the west on the district Kasaragod in Kerala and in the southwest on the district Kannur in Kerala and in the south on the district Wayanad in Kerala. It is a hilly area, the lowest altitude of which is 120 meters above sea level. The highest peak, Tadiandamol, rises to 1,750 meters, while Pushpagiri is the second highest at 1,715 meters. The main river in Kodagu is the Kaveri (Cauvery), which rises in Talakaveri on the east side of the western Ghats and with its tributaries drains most of Kodagu.

Administrative departments

Talks

The district is divided into five administrative taluks:

presentation

Two members of the Legislative Assembly are elected to the Karnataka Legislative Assembly by Kodagu, one each from Madikeri and Virajpet. MP Appachu Ranjan represents the Madikeri constituency, while KG Bopaiah represents the Virajpet constituency. You are from the Bharatiya Janata Party. Kodagu, formerly part of the Kodagu-Dakshina Kannada (Mangalore) constituency, is now part of the Mysore Lok Sabha constituency. The current MP for this constituency is Shri Pratap Simha of the Bharatiya Janata Party.

The Codava National Council and Kodava Rashtriya Samiti advocate the autonomy of the Kodagu District. [5] [6]

history

Map of the South Indian states before the States Reorganization Act of 1956. Kodagu (then called Coorg) is dark green.
Kalbane Yemmegundi Palace

The Kodavas were the earliest residents and farmers in Kodagu, and had lived there for centuries. Since they were also a warrior community, they carried weapons in times of war and had their own chiefs. The Haleri dynasty, an offshoot of the Keladi Nayakas, ruled Kodagu between 1600 and 1834. Later, the British ruled Kodagu from 1834 after the Coorg War until India gained independence in 1947. Until then, a separate state (called Coorg State) until 1956 Kodagu was merged with the state of Mysore (now Karnataka). [7]

Coorg in British India

In 1834 the East India Company annexed Kodagu to British India after having deposed Chikka Virarajendra from the Kodagu Kingdom as "Coorg". The people peacefully accepted British rule. British rule resulted in the creation of educational institutions, the introduction of scientific coffee growing, better administration and the improvement of the economy. [8]

Demographics

Kodavas, 1875, from "The People of India: A Series of Photographic Illustrations ..." (New York Public Library).
Languages ​​in the Kodagu District [9]
languagespeaker
Kannada32,66%
Malayalam25,57%
Kodava14,86%
Tulu8,92%
Marathi6,30%
Other11,69%
Spread of languages
Source: 2011 census

According to the 2011 census of India, Kodagu has a population of 554,519, [ To edit ] roughly the same as the Solomon Islands [10] or the State of Wyoming. [11] This makes 539 out of 640 districts in India, measured by population. [ To edit ] The district has a population density of 135 people per square kilometer (350 / sq mi). [ To edit ] The population growth rate in the decade 2001-2011 was 1.13%. [ Citation required ] Kodagu has a gender ratio of 1019 women per 1000 men, [ Citation required ] and a literacy rate of 82.52%. [ Quote needed ]

Kodava Takk is the native language of Kodagu. Are Bhashe, a dialect of Kannada, comes from Sulya in Dakshina Kannada. Both use Kannada script for literature. [12] According to Karnataka Kodava Sahitya Academy (Karnatakas Kodava Literary Academy), along with Kodavas and their related groups, are the Amma Kodavas who have favourited Kodava Peggade (Kodagu Heggade) and the Kodava Maaple (Kodava Muslims) 18 other smaller ethnic groups speak Kodava Takk inside and outside the district, including the Iri ( Airi or the carpenter and the Village blacksmiths ), the Koyava , the Banna , the Kodagu Madivala (Washer), the Kodagu Hajama (Hairdresser, also called Nainda) Kembatti Poleya (domestic servants and workers) and the Meda (Basket and mat weavers and drummers). [13] Less common are Tulu speakers such as Billavas, Mogaveeras, Bunts and Goud Saraswat Brahmins. [13]

Other Kodava speakers

Among other Kodava speaking communities are: the Heggades , Shimogga cultivator; the Kodava Nair , Cultivators from Malabar; the Ayiri who make up the artisan caste; the Medas , the basket and Mat weaver and perform as drummers at festivals; the Binepatta , originally wandering musicians from Malabar, now farmers; and the Kavadi , Cultivators who settled in Yedenalknad (Virajpet). All of these groups speak the Kodava language and generally conform to Kodava customs and dress. [12]

Kodagu Aarebashe Gowda people

The Arebhashe Gowdas [14] or Kodagu Gowdas and Tulu Gowdas are an ethnic group of Dakshina Kannada and Kodagu. They live in Sulya (in Dakshina Kannada) and in parts of Somwarpet, Kushalanagar, Bhagamandala and Madikeri. They speak a language known as Arebhashe, a dialect of Kannada. Guddemane Appaiah Gowda and many other freedom fighters from various communities rebelled against the British in an armed struggle that included all of Kodagu and Dakshina Kannada. This was one of the earliest freedom movements against the British [15], called "Amara Sulliada Swantantrya Sangraama" [16] ( Amara Sulya Dhange [15] , officially called the "Coorg Rebellion" by the British), which began in 1837. [17] [ 18] [19] [20]

Muslims and Christians

A large minority of Muslims dot the Coorg district, especially the towns of Kushalnagar, Virajpet and Mercara. A significant number of them are the Nawayaths, who moved from Bhatkal and Murdeshwar in the 1980s to run coffee and arecanut plantations, as well as textile businesses. The numerous mosques in the landscape testify to the Muslim presence in the district.

A small number of Mangalorean Catholics can also be found in Coorg. [ quantify ] Most of them are descended from those Konkani Catholics who fled from the grouping and later from the captivity of the Tippoo Sultan. These immigrants were greeted by Raja Veerarajendra (himself a former prisoner of the Tippoo Sultan who escaped from six years of imprisonment in 1788), who saw their usefulness and expertise as farmers, gave them land and tax breaks, and built a church for them. [21]

yearPop.±% pa
1901180,607- -    
1911174.976–0,32%
1921163.838–0,66%
1931163,327–0,03%
1941168.726+ 0,33%
1951229,405+ 3,12%
1961322,829+ 3,48%
1971378,291+ 1,60%
1981461,888+ 2,02%
1991488,455+ 0,56%
2001548,561+ 1,17%
2011554,519+ 0,11%
Source: [22]

tourism

Kaveri River in Kushalnagara
Tibetan Buddhist Golden Temple, near Bylakuppe and in Kushalnagara

Kodagu is considered to be one of the top hill station destinations in India. Popular tourist attractions in Kodagu include Talakaveri, Bhagamandala, Nisargadhama, Abbey Falls, Dubare, Nagarahole National Park, Iruppu Falls and the Tibetan Buddhist Golden Temple. [23]

  • Talakaveri is the place where the Kaveri River has its source. [24] The riverside temple is dedicated to Lord Brahma and one of only two temples dedicated to Brahma in India and Southeast Asia. Bhagamandala is located at the Sangama (confluence) of two rivers, the Kaveri and the Kannika. A third river, the Sujyothi, is said to connect from the underground, and therefore this place is called Triveni Sangama. Iruppu Falls is a sacred Kodagu Hindu site in southern Kodagu in the Brahmagiri mountain range. The Lakshmana Tirtha River with the waterfalls flows nearby and has a Rameshwara temple on its banks. It is said that this sacred river was created when Laxmana, Prince of Ayodhya and younger brother of Lord Rama, shot an arrow into the nearby hill, Brahmagiri Hill. The Chelavara Falls and Thadiandamol Summit are also located in South Kodagu. Nagarahole is a national park and wildlife resort.
  • Madikeri is the district capital and Rajas Seat Park is popular with tourists. [25] The Kootu Poley Dam is also popular with tourists. Omkareshwara Temple is a beautiful Indo-Sarcaenic style temple in Coorg. A legend is associated with the temple built by Lingarajendra II in 1820. The king killed a pious brahmin who dared to protest his wrongdoings. The spirit of the dead began to plague the king day and night. On the advice of wise men, the king built this temple and installed a shivalinga that was procured from Kashi, northern India. St. Mark's Church is located in the Mercara Fort and was built in 1859 by the officers and men of the East India Company. The building was funded by the government of Madras, [26] and placed under the