What is globalism

3.4.3 Globalism, globality and globalization

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The sociologist Ulrich Beck (1997) differentiates between "globalism", "globality" and "globalization". He intends to break up orthodoxy that was created in the course of the development and establishment of the nation states in what he calls it "First Modern", were created (cf. Beck 1997: 26). This "First Modern Age" is characterized by institutional distinctions, for example between politics and economics, and by the idea of ​​closed, territorially bound units such as nation states.

While Globalism the ideology of world market rule - neoliberalism - and the associated replacement of political with economic ideologies, is omitted Globality understand the fact that "we have (long) been living in a world society" in which the idea of ​​closed territories is fictitious (ibid .: 28). globalization finally means "the processes as a result of which the nation-states and their sovereignty are undermined and cross-linked by transnational actors, their opportunities for power, orientations, identities and networks" (ibid.). Globalization in this sense enables the global networking of transnational actors as well as the creation of new connections and spaces.

These globalization processes constitute what Beck (1997: 29) is "Second Modern" is called. Are essential herecultural factorswhich are mostly underrepresented in public discourse due to the focus on the economic aspects of globalism (cf.e.g. Appadurai 1996, Hannerz 1996). But precisely the "research into cultural globalization from an ethnological perspective shows other opportunities and risks than those of the economic dimension" (Breidenbach and Zukrigl 2000: 234).